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Setiap Warga Indonesia Diwajibkan Untuk Bela Negara

Bela negara merupakan sikap dan perilaku rela berkorban warga negara dalam menjamin kelangsungan hidup Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang berlandaskan Pancasila dan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945.

Dalam pasal 27 ayat (3) UUD 1945 berbunyi “Setiap warga negara berhak dan wajib ikut serta dalam upaya pembelaan negara”. Sehingga, secara konstitusional bela negara mengikat seluruh lapisan masyarakat Indonesia untuk turut serta dalam upaya pembelaan negara.

Banyak masyarakat yang menilai bahwa bela negara identik dengan wajib militer. Dalam bela negara, kewajiban berlaku bagi seluruh kalangan masyarakat. Kegiatan ini pun lebih mengutamakan dalam memupuk rasa nasionalisme dan patriotisme. Selain itu, bela negara bersifat sukarela.

Sedangkan wajib militer merupakan kewajiban yang ditetapkan negara kepada seluruh rakyat dengan batasan usia tertentu. Kegiatan ini tidak diwajibkan kepada seluruh masyarakat dan lebih menekankan pada persiapan untuk menghadapi perang secara nyata.

Konsep bela negara mengandung arti keikutsertaan dalam pertahanan negara dengan cara mempertahankan kemerdekaan dan kedaulatan negara, keutuhan wilayah, dan keselamatan negara dari segala macam ancaman.

Sedangkan menurut Kementerian Pertahanan, konsep bela negara merupakan aktualisasi dari program revolusi mental Presiden Joko Widodo guna membentuk warga negara yang militan dalam membela negara dari gangguan apa pun.

Pelaksanaan program ini merupakan solusi jangka panjang dalam menjaga keutuhan, keamanan, dan kenyamanan hidup berbangsa dan bernegara. Setiap negara membutuhkan pondasi pertahanan keamanan nasional yang kuat dan kokoh. Tanpa pondasi ketahanan nasional yang kuat, ancaman keamanan dan kenyamanan bangsa sangat rentan. Untuk itu, diperlukannya bela negara sebagai cara untuk mengatasi permasalahan dalam negara ini.

Kementerian Pertahanan Republik Indonesia telah meluncurkan program bela negara pada tahun 2015 yang lalu. Dengan harapan, akan dibentuk 4.500 kader pembina bela negara di 45 kota di Indonesia. Dalam sepuluh tahun yang akan datang, ditargetkan 100 juta rakyat Indonesia akan mengikuti program yang dicanangkan oleh pemerintah tersebut.

Dalam pelaksanaannya, Kementerian Pertahanan RI menggandeng berbagai institusi atau pun perguruan tinggi dalam memerikan pelatihan. Konsep pelatihan fokus pada upaya mengembangkan wawasan kebangsaan.

Namun, program ini menuai pro dan kontra dikalangan masyarakat. Beberapa masyarakat menilai perihal materi yang disampaikan merupakan materi kemiliteran. Hal ini menimbulkan kecurigaan dalam masyarakat bahwa bela negara sebagai upaya mobilisasi negara dalam melibatkan rakyat sebelum perang.

Di sisi lain, terdapat beberapa alasan negara harus dibela oleh warganya. Tujuan akhir negara sendiri ialah menciptakan kebahagiaan untuk rakyatnya. Dengan kata lain, negara didirikan guna menyejahterakan warganya. Jadi, sudah sepatutnya setiap warga negara bersedia membela negaranya. Ini bukan dilakukan untuk segelintir kalangan saja, namun untuk seluruh masyarakat Indonesia.

Selain itu, dalam memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Para pejuang bangsa memiliki tekad yang bulat dalam membela dan menegakkan kemerdekaan. Karena itu, sebagai penerus bangsa wajib dalam mempertahankan keutuhan NKRI.

Setiap bangsa Indonesia memiliki kewajiban dan hak yang setara dalam melaksanakan bela negara. Tentara dan warga sipil merupakan sumber daya manusia yang menjadi komponen penting dalam sistem pertahanan nasional, yakni pertahanan dan keamanan negara.

TNI dan Polri menjadi komponen utama dalam sistem pertahanan ini, sedangkan masyarakat sebagai komponen pendukung. Dalam menjalankan bela negara harus dilandasi oleh prinsip-prinsip demokrasi, hak asasi manusia, dan kesejahteraan umum.

Sumber : https://www.minews.id/asumsi/setiap-warga-indonesia-diwajibkan-untuk-bela-negara

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Peran Sikap dalam Manajemen Konflik

Konflik muncul ketika individu sangat menentang pendapat dan pandangan satu sama lain dan tidak mau berkompromi satu sama lain. Konflik tidak menyelesaikan masalah; itu hanya menciptakan ketegangan, kecemasan dan memberi Anda nama buruk. Tidak ada tubuh yang menghargai Anda, jika Anda terus-menerus terlibat dalam perkelahian. Konflik harus dikendalikan pada waktu yang tepat untuk lingkungan yang sehat dan damai.

Sikap memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam manajemen konflik. Tidak ada yang bisa dicapai kecuali dan sampai Anda percaya pada diri sendiri dan memiliki sikap positif . Seorang individu harus menghindari menemukan kesalahan pada orang lain. Selalu ingat, jika Anda menunjuk ke arah orang lain, empat jari juga ke arah Anda. Jangan selalu berasumsi bahwa orang lain yang bersalah.

Mengadopsi sikap positif terhadap pekerjaan dan kehidupan secara keseluruhan. Jadilah sedikit lebih fleksibel dan menyesuaikan diri. Tidak ada yang pernah mendapatkan sesuatu dari konflik, ia memiliki semua konsekuensi yang merugikan. Individu cenderung kehilangan kendali atas emosi mereka dan bereaksi berlebihan menyakiti perasaan orang lain.

Jangan selalu negatif . Menurut hukum tarik-menarik, jika Anda mengadopsi sikap positif, hal-hal baik terjadi pada Anda, sedangkan sikap negatif selalu menarik hal-hal negatif. Konflik, perkelahian merusak lingkungan dan Anda selalu merasa gelisah dan cemas. Anda tidak akan kehilangan apa pun jika Anda mengambil inisiatif untuk menyelesaikan pertarungan. Dengan cara ini Anda akan mendapatkan rasa hormat dan orang-orang akan memandang Anda. Jadilah orang pertama yang meminta maaf. Itu tidak akan membuat Anda kecil, sebaliknya akan mencegah Anda dari ketegangan yang tidak perlu. Permintaan maaf yang sederhana sebenarnya dapat menyelesaikan argumen dan konflik utama.

Pastikan Anda memasuki tempat kerja Anda dengan tenang dan pikiran positif . Jika pikiran Anda diselimuti oleh pikiran negatif, semuanya akan tampak salah. Tidak ada yang menarik minat Anda dan Anda akan selalu ingin berkelahi dengan orang lain. Jadilah sedikit lebih pemaaf. Berhasil. Memaafkan memiliki efek penyembuhan pada individu. Jika orang lain telah melakukan kesalahan pada Anda, jangan berlarut-larut, alih-alih memaafkannya. Tidak semua orang diberkati dengan seni memaafkan, itu datang seiring waktu. Jangan terpaku pada masalah apa pun, lanjutkan.

Jika Anda mengalami hubungan yang buruk, berhentilah mengoceh dan berkelahi, alih-alih teruskan. Selalu melihat sisi terang kehidupan. Ada banyak hal yang lebih baik dalam hidup daripada bertengkar dengan semua orang. Anda membutuhkan orang dan hubungan penting dalam hidup. Kapan pun Anda merasa ingin berkelahi dengan orang lain, berhentilah sejenak dan pikirkan sejenak apakah pertarungan ini akan menguntungkan Anda? Sikap positif memberi Anda kedamaian mental yang diinginkan. Individu dengan sikap negatif memanjakan diri dalam menyebarkan desas-desus, cerita palsu dan cenderung mempengaruhi orang lain juga. Satu apel busuk merusak apel segar lainnya juga. Satu pikiran negatif sudah cukup untuk memicu konflik dan menciptakan keresahan. Jangan pernah merasa tidak bahagia; selalu temukan alasan untuk bahagia. Terkadang hal-hal mungkin tidak menguntungkan Anda, tetapi itu bukan akhir dari jalan. Jangan membawa stres yang tidak perlu dan menimbulkan masalah bagi diri sendiri maupun orang lain.

Jen bertengkar hebat dengan suaminya tadi malam. Dia memiliki konflik dengan anggota timnya Jackson keesokan paginya di tempat kerja untuk alasan yang tidak diketahui.

Apakah sikap Jen benar? Apa yang diperoleh Jen dari argumen tersebut?

Suasana hati Jen yang berperan sebagai katalisator konflik. Argumen itu hanya meningkatkan ketegangannya serta merusak hubungannya dengan Jackson. Selalu ingat setelah setiap malam yang gelap, ada pagi yang indah. Jangan pernah kehilangan harapan. Jangan menjadi mangsa orang-orang dengan pendekatan negatif terhadap hampir semua hal. Mereka merusak lingkungan dan mencoba yang terbaik untuk memaksakan ide-ide negatif mereka pada orang lain juga.

Ada cahaya di ujung terowongan. Seorang individu harus mengembangkan sikap positif untuk menghindari perselisihan, konflik dan menjalani kehidupan yang bahagia dan damai.

sumber : https://www.managementstudyguide.com

Artikel Terkait : http://fathurrahman.bm.uma.ac.id/2021/07/16/peran-komunikasi-dalam-manajemen-konflik/

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Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components

Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing, It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Activity for each part type and includes specific information about the cost drivers and cost pools. The enhanced model output can be used for cost estimation and analysis, manufacturing cell design, part scheduling and other manufacturing decision processes that involve economic considerations. Although the scope of this effort is restricted to a small scale manufacturing cell, the costing concepts have general applicability to manufacturing operations at all levels.

Low volume production techniques account for a large share of manufacturing operations. It is estimated that as much as 75 percent of all part manufacturing is performed with lot sizes of 50 or less (Groover, 1987). A typical job shop production system is characterized by low volume and high product variety. Parts are routed around the shop in small batches through a functional process layout. This type of layout and production system involves similar types of machines being grouped into physically separate areas of a facility.One of the more effective methods for a traditional job shop to improve its manufacturing efficiency is through the application of group technology. Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy that takes advantage of the similarities in the design and manufacturing attributes of production parts (Groover, 1987). Similar parts are grouped together into part families. Efficiency is gained by arranging the production equipment into manufacturing cells to facilitate work flow and reduce the inherent inefficiencies of batch production (Groover, 1987; Dhavale, 1993). In a comparison of a traditionaljob shop to a manufacturing cell using group technology, Flynn and Jacobs (2007) found that the group technologydesign, on average, had shorter setup times, lower machine utilization, and shorter distances traveled. However, the efficiency gained with cellular manufacturing may not be accurately reflected in the product costs if the company uses the traditional accounting practices of a typical job shop environment (Dhavale, 1992). Today’s manufacturing processes are much more automatedand the direct labor percentage is therefore significantly reduced. Additionally, overhead costs have greatly increased. The traditional volume-based costing (VBC) methods are less meaningful with this increase in the relative amount of non-direct costs (Barth,Livet, & De Gui, 2008; Harrison and Sullivan, 1996). Moreover, an operator may tend to several machines at one time and may perform tasks such as inspection and maintenance that are considered indirect labor. This makes it difficult to account for all of anoperator’s time and to partition the cost spent only on direct labor (Dhavale, 1992).As a solution, activity-based costing (ABC), also called activity-based cost accounting, attempts to eliminate the distinction between direct and indirect costs by improving the reporting precision of non-direct costs or overhead (Lere & Saraph, 2006; Dhavale, 1992; Harrison and Sullivan, 1996). While ABC was developed for understanding manufacturing costs, its application is availablefor manytypes of systems (Raab, Shoemaker, & Mayer, 2007). To be truly useful, one needs to estimate the manufacturing costs under alternate configurations, and with various capacity, resource, and product mix scenarios. Discrete-event simulation is one of the best techniques to study and compare these scenarios. Usually simulation focuses on evaluating system performance variables such as resource utilization, inventory levels, and throughput time. A cost analysis is typically performed separately of the simulation model development. This research highlights the integration of the two. There are three methods for incorporating cost estimation with simulation (Savory, Williams, & Rasmussen, 2001). The first involves incorporating costing extensions into the simulation language or package. An example of this would be the commercially-available simul8 simulation software. A disadvantage is that many times only superficial costing information is presented and the specific details of how the costs are determined are unknown to the modeler. The second approach involves developing costing estimates off-line during a post-processing step that uses the final system performance measures generated by the simulation. This is the most common approach in that a modeler takes the simulation results and converts them to costs. A disadvantage is that costing estimates are developed based on aggregate simulation data and often times does not account for the underlying randomness and variability of part processing and system interaction. A final approach incorporates costing routines directly into the simulation model and collects data on-line during the execution of the model. As this research will highlight, one of its key advantages is that non-allocated costs associated with idle time can be tracked. This paper discusses the positive integration of ABC and discrete-event simulation to provide detailed estimates of cellular manufacturing costs for a part family and U-shaped manufacturing cell. Section 2 provides an overview of activity-based cost accounting. Section 3 describes an example cellular manufacturing system. Section 4 develops the cost drivers and activity centers for themanufacturing cell example. Section 5 shares details on the simulation model development. Section 6 highlights the costing reports generated by the simulation model for the example cellular manufacturing system. Section 7 concludes with a discussion of the relevance of the research.

 

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Towards improving the performance of flexible manufacturing system

Towards improving the performance of flexible manufacturing system,Increasing global competition has evolved a manufacturing environment which gleans vast product variety, reduced manufacturing lead times, increased quality standards and competitive costs. Simultaneously, with a rising trend toward globalization, these manufacturing environments must be designed to cater new challenges to survive and grow in the marketplace. To deal with such multifaceted problems, new technologies support increased flexibility and automation. These objectives intended for the improvement of the manufacturing environment have been the key rationales for the introduction of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). In this paper a case study of a firm is presented with a contribution to suggest some methods of performance improvement for a flexible system of manufacturing. The study is based on the mathematical models illustrated in literature to estimate possible performance parameters like maximum production rate, make span time and overall utilization. Through this study, an effort is also made to present the improved design for existing flexible manufacturing system employed in the company. Various design and performance parameters are then evaluated and compared for the existing and improved FMS.

Competitivebusiness environment offersnew pressuresto be confronted by the manufacturing systems, such as tailored product (increasing variety) with delivery on time along with emphasize conventional requirements of quality and competitive cost. Therefore, to sustain in the global scenario, the focus is to develop a manufacturing system that can fulfil all the demanded requirements within due dates at a reasonable cost. The introduction of Flexible manufacturing System (FMS) facilitates manufacturing industries to improve their performance along with the flexibility to make the customized product with medium volume.A Flexible manufacturing System (FMS)can be defined as a computer-controlledconfiguration of semi-dependent workstations andmaterial-handling systems designed to efficiently manufacturevarious part types with low to medium volume.It combines high levels of flexibility with high productivity and low level of work-in-process inventory (Jang &Park, 1996). The exquisitenessof FMSis that it gleaned the ideas both from the flow shop and batch shop manufacturing systemand is designed to imitatethe flexibility of job shops while maintainingthe effectiveness of dedicated production systems. Such FMS should be designed to improveproductivity while fulfilling thedemand with decreasing makespantime.A generic FMS is able to handle a variety of products in small to medium sized batches simultaneously. The flexibility of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) has enabled it to become one of the most suitable manufacturing systems in the current manufacturing scenario of customized and varied products with shorter life cycles. With the aim of combining production flexibility and productivity, thedesign of flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is subject of high investments. Deterministic models based on discrete-event simulation can be utilized to design production systems such as FMSs. Distinctively these are used to design and size the hardware requirements of a FMS(buffer capacity,layout design, material handling layout design, and number of workstations withrespectto the projectedproduction) with an objective to raise the utilization of resources. However these decisions of FMS design are strategic and to be taken in initialphase with extreme care ensuring that the designed FMS will successfully fulfill the demands of fluctuating market. The design decisions of FMS must be based on the justification of performance improvement. In recent environment where a manager can make use of easily available computing power along with the various commercial tools and techniques, it is quite reasonable to estimate some performance issues of existing and proposed FMS and subsequently suggest the design decisions. The employment of above mentioned tools and models tojudge the FMS performance could be very useful to evaluate the system parameters like production rate, resource utilization, make span time etc. at a beginning stage of design decision making. The company selected for the case was under pressure from the market and was ready with the funds to introduce some major modifications in their existing system to improve the productivity along with the flexibility to survive in the competitive working domain.This paper presents a study performed for performance evaluation ofan existing system with the objective to improve the performance by designing a new FMS. The case company is located in National Capital Region of India and was striving to improve the performance of existing flexible system and setting up to make some investment decisions for up-gradation.The remainder of this paper is described as following: Section 2 gives an overview of the literature surveyed to conduct the research;subsequently section 3 delineates the problem definition along with the objectives of the case and the data collection. Section 4includes the design and simulation of new FMS while section 5 analyses and compares the results of the study. In section 6, the paper has been concluded with some issues and future intensions of the research

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Resources in academic discourse

Resources in academic discourse: An empirical investigation of management journals, Commonly shared conceptualizations of resources are scant in academic management research which strikes as somewhat peculiar since resources and their allocation thereof have long been recognised to be at the heart of the competitive advantage and performance of a firm. The research literature considering resources as basis for competitive advantages has further faced contemporary criticism for the vagueness of the fundamental definition of the resource concept. Therefore, this paper empirically studies the representation of resource concept in academic management research literature. The paper reports results on the state of conceptualisations of organisations’ resources found in two distinct sources of research literature, namely ScienceDirect’s database and ISI’s top management journals, resulting in two data sets of a total of 457 articles. The findings illustrate the two-dimensional conceptual farrago in the conceptualisations; on the definitions of the resource concept itself and on the internal structure and the level of analysis when the concept is considered. In addition, the paper sheds light on the temporal evolution of the discourse explicitly considering resources. Finally, the paper considers several remedies for these deficiencies in order both to aid future theory development in management studies and to help increase the practical impact of the research in assisting managerial decision-making.

This paper addresses the questionsof what and how resources have been used in managementresearchliterature. In management research resources have been widely accepted as main building blocks for many theories(e.g. resource-based theory, resource-advantage theory and resource-allocation theory)explaining various aspects oforganisational behaviour and performance. Some researchers have suggested that resources can be arranged in a hierarchical fashion, building on resource-advantage theory’s notion of basic resources and higher-order resources (Hunt, 2000; Madhavaram & Hunt, 2008; Collis & Montgomery, 1995; Fernández, Montes, & Vázquez, 2000; Grant, 1991; Seppänen & Mäkinen, 2007). For example, competencesand capabilities are higher order resources in asense that they are bundles of basic resources. Usually, existing categorisations are targeted to explore resources from particular perspectives, for instance, from perspectives of intellectual capital (e.g. Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998) or business model (e.g. Seppänen & Mäkinen, 2007). These categorisations are important for the development of theoryin general, and hierarchical schemas are particularly important(Tuomi, 1999) since they bring structure and coordination to discourse of developments.However, in recent literature criticism on the resource conceptualisations havebeen raised in tandem to these developments(a recent review e.g. Kraaijenbrink,Spender & Groen, 2010).Namely, the fundamental, axiomatic definitions considering the conceptualisationsof resource have been noted as too varied and all inclusive (e.g. Priem & Butler, 2001a).Therefore,the purpose of this paper is to explore the current state of definitions of theresource concept in the management researchfield at largewithout concentrating on specific research streams. The paper investigates, how the heterogeneity of the definitions of the resource concept ismanifested, if soat all, in the management researcharticles, both in general and in the top research journals. For the purposes of this study, we use a framework recently proposed for classifying resource categories (Madhavaram & Hunt, 2008). Reason for selecting this particular starting point is that itessentially includes most of the resources identified in the earlier researchconsidering resource-based view(e.g. Wernefelt, 1984; Barney, 1991; Conner, 1991; Hall, 1992).This classification proposes that there exist three levels of resources: 1) basic, 2) composite, and 3) interconnected operant resources. Madhavaram & Hunt (2008) did not, for some reason, provide a list for basic operant resources,but refer only to prior research’s seven categories of resources. This list includes physical, financial, organizational, relational, human, informational, and legal resources that form the basic categories under which all other resources can be classified.In this study, we populate a list of papers in thecurrent management literaturedealing with resource concepts. Based on two separate data sets, we show how thecurrent discourse concerning the resource concepts in the field of management studies is distorted. Finally, we discuss the possibilities for further research, and provide suggestions on how the distortions might be remedied and researchbased on resourceconceptualisations improved.

 

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Influence of cultural mechanisms on horizontal inter-firm collaborations

Influence of cultural mechanisms on horizontal inter-firm collaborations, The evolution of organizations that work in multinational environments has considerably altered their production strategies. One of the consequences has been the appearance of Horizontal Inter-firm Collaborations (HICs), which include all kinds of enterprises and production centres and establish a new type of horizontal collaborations and relations between independent companies or even competitors who establish occasional collaborations on projects they could not take on individually. HICs are dynamically changing organizations formed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Contract Manufacturers (CMs), turn-key and component suppliers, R+D centres and distributors. The dynamic relations that exist within the HICs allow them a very permeable organization easy to connect and disconnect from one to each other as well as to choose a set of partners with specific attributes. The result is a highly flexible system characterized by low barriers to entry and exit, geographic flexibility, low costs, rapid technological diffusion, high diversification through contract manufacturers and exceptional economies of scale. This study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as cultural similarity among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust atinter-firm collaborations. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices in which collaboration actors can be identified may strengthen the group membership or establish a social network that underlies the own HIC and facilitates interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new HICsby establishing, ex ante, a cultural prescriptive model at the network level. Finally, to validate the proposed model, the case methodology have been applied to an example within the aeronautical industry that has been one of the most successful relationships within HICs, the collaboration between GE and SNECMA for the CFM 56 engine manufacturing.

Today, the concept of plant or production centre is becoming increasingly more ambiguous. In many industries, there is growing collaboration between production centres and manufacturing networks that seek torespond to market demands more efficiently and obtain competitive advantages in an increasingly globalized environment. Horizontal Inter-firm Collaborations (HICs)allow companies to focus on their core competences, maintaining their participation in thedesign and manufacture of complex integrated systems. These collaborationscan be considered as extended manufacturing systems where various companies can co-operate on a specific project whose result is the manufacture of a product or the provision of a service and where each company is expert in one or more of the areas that give the product its value. Although there are hardly any theoretical models or studies on how these networks function, they are known to develop on a large scale and involve a complex number of participants that include enterprises, organizations and institutions covering several countries or even continents. .

This work will analyze the possible existence of an organizational culture at the network level based on some cultural mechanisms acting under a systemic perspective that influence the success or survival of inter-firm collaborations. The hypothesis of the existence of a homogeneous culture in the HICwhere actors can be identified would strengthen the group membership, minimize inter-company conflicts or increase the interactions among its members.Figure 1contains basic aspects of the conceptual model to be developed where some cultural mechanisms influence inthe dynamics of HICs. This work will analyze the nature of these mechanisms, their influence on the construction of these networks and their mutual interaction. Albeit true origins of these mechanisms are based on the traditional principles of organizational culture, its dynamics in HICs is considerably different. These mechanisms, in some cases, underlie some organizations even before the formation of relationships (ex ante mechanisms) and, in other cases, arise subsequently to the formation of the relation and exert a considerable influence in it (ex post mechanisms). The effect of these mechanisms, if well managed, can produce significant benefits in their own HICwhich will result in an increase on its efficiency.Section2 of this work includes the most interesting contributions of the literature concerning Horizontal Inter-firm Collaborations (HICs)and corporate culture. Sections 3, 4, 5 and 6 develop the four nominated cultural mechanisms that are similarity of culturalpractices, social embeddedness, trust and tacit knowledge transfer. The proposed conceptual model is developed in section7 as well as the mutual influence of these cultural mechanisms and the benefits of a systemic culture. To validate the model proposed, section8 applies the case methodology to one of the most successful examples of horizontal cooperation in the aeronautical industry, the CFM 56 engine manufacturing collaboration between GE and SNECMA, where it is analyzed the importance of the four nominated cultural mechanisms. Finally, section9 summarizes the most relevant contributions of this work as well as some proposals for further developments in this field.

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Arsitektur Komputer 

Arsitektur Komputer 

Arsitektur Komputer Dalam pembuatan komputer, teknik komputer adalah seperangkat aturan dan metode yang menggambarkan fungsionalitas, organisasi, dan pemanfaatan sistem komputer. Beberapa definisi teknik mendefinisikannya sebagai menggambarkan peralatan dan model pemrograman komputer tetapi bukan penggunaan khusus. Dalam definisi lain, arsitektur komputer membuktikan set instruksi desain arsitektur, desain mikroarsitektur, desain logika, dan pemanfaatan.

Istilah “rekayasa” dalam literatur komputer dapat digambarkan sebagai karya Lyle R. Johnson dan Frederick P. Johnson mendapat kesempatan untuk menulis penelitian Transmisi kepemilikan Stretch, superkomputer yang dikembangkan IBM untuk Workshop Nasional Los Alamos (saat itu dikenal sebagai Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory). Menjelaskan tingkat detail untuk membahas komputer yang didekorasi dengan mewah, ia mencatat bahwa deskripsinya tentang format, jenis instruksi, parameter perangkat keras, dan peningkatan kecepatan berada pada tingkat “arsitektur sistem,” istilah yang disarankan lebih berguna daripada “manajemen mesin.”

Definisi Ilmu Komputer
Meskipun istilah teknik komputer terdengar sangat rumit, definisinya lebih mudah dari yang diperkirakan. Teknik komputer adalah ilmu atau seperangkat aturan yang menyatakan bagaimana perangkat lunak dan perangkat keras otak digabungkan dan berinteraksi untuk membuat komputer berfungsi. Ini menentukan tidak hanya bagaimana otak bekerja tetapi juga teknologi apa yang mampu dilakukan komputer. Otak terus menjadi bagian utama dari kehidupan kita, dan arsitek otak sedang dibangun kembali untuk mengembangkan kebijakan dan teknologi yang baru dan lebih baik.

Apa itu Arsitektur Komputer?
Teknik komputer adalah spesifikasi yang menggambarkan bagaimana peralatan rumah tangga dan teknologi perangkat lunak berinteraksi untuk membuat podium atau sistem otak. Ketika kita memikirkan kata arsitektur, kita berpikir tentang mendirikan rumah atau bangunan. Dengan mengingat prinsip yang sama, arsitektur komputer menyarankan untuk membangun komputer dan semua yang masuk ke dalam sistem otak. Arsitektur komputer terdiri dari tiga kategori utama.

Desain sistem – Ini mencakup semua bagian perangkat keras, seperti CPU, prosesor data, multiprosesor, pengontrol memori, dan akses memori langsung. Bagian ini adalah sistem komputer yang sebenarnya.
Arsitektur set instruksi – Ini mencakup fungsi dan kapabilitas CPU, bahasa pemrograman CPU, format data, jenis register prosesor, dan instruksi yang digunakan oleh pemrogram komputer. Bagian ini adalah perangkat lunak yang menjalankannya, seperti Windows atau Photoshop atau program serupa.
Microarchitecture – Ini mendefinisikan pemrosesan data dan elemen penyimpanan atau jalur data dan bagaimana mereka harus diimplementasikan ke dalam arsitektur set instruksi. Ini mungkin termasuk perangkat penyimpanan DVD atau perangkat serupa.
Semua bagian ini berjalan bersama dalam urutan tertentu dan harus dikembangkan dalam pola agar berfungsi dengan baik.

Tentukan Arsitek
Buku ini membahas tentang merancang dan membangun otak khusus. Kita semua tahu apa itu otak. Kotak itulah yang ada di meja Anda, diam-diam mendengkur (atau berderak jika kipas ditembakkan), menjalankan program Anda, dan secara sistematis mogok (jika Anda tidak menjalankan keragaman Unix). Di dalam kotak tersebut terdapat televisi yang menjalankan perangkat lunak Anda, menyimpan instruksi Anda, dan menghubungkan Anda ke dunia. Ini semua tentang memproses informasi. Merancang komputer, oleh karena itu, adalah tentang merancang mesin yang menyimpan dan memanipulasi data.

sistem otak pada dasarnya dibagi menjadi dua divisi terpisah. Yang pertama, dan paling jelas, adalah komputer desktop. Saat Anda mengatakan “komputer” kepada seseorang, ini adalah mesin yang biasanya muncul di benak Anda. Jenis komputer kedua adalah komputer tertanam, komputer yang diintegrasikan ke dalam sistem lain untuk tujuan kontrol dan / atau pemantauan. Jauh lebih banyak komputer tertanam daripada sistem desktop tetapi jauh lebih tidak jelas. Tanyakan rata-rata orang berapa banyak komputer yang dia miliki di rumahnya, dan dia mungkin menjawab bahwa dia memiliki satu atau dua. Bahkan, mungkin ada 30 atau lebih, tersembunyi di dalam TV, VCR, pemutar DVD, remote control, mesin cuci, telepon seluler, penarik udara, konsol game, oven, mainan, dan sejumlah perangkat lainnya.

Pada bab ini, kita akan melihat arsitektur komputer secara umum. Hal ini berlaku untuk komputer tertanam dan desktop, karena perbedaan utama antara mesin tertanam dan komputer tujuan umum adalah aplikasinya. Prinsip dasar transaksi dan arsitektur yang mendasarinya pada dasarnya sama, keduanya memiliki prosesor, memori, dan seringkali beberapa bentuk input dan output. Karakteristik utamanya terletak pada tujuan penggunaannya, dan ini diikuti oleh desain sistem dan perangkat lunaknya. Komputer desktop dapat menjalankan berbagai program aplikasi, dengan sumber daya sistem yang dikendalikan oleh sistem operasi. Dengan menjalankan program operasi yang berbeda, fungsionalitas komputer desktop berubah. Suatu saat, ini bisa digunakan sebagai pengolah kata; berikutnya adalah pemutar MP3 atau klien meja. Perangkat lunak mana yang dimuat dan dijalankan berada di bawah administrasi pengguna.

Bagaimana Menjadi Arsitek Komputer
Untuk menjadi arsitek komputer, yang sering disebut sebagai arsitek jaringan komputer, kandidat harus memiliki setidaknya gelar sarjana di bidang ilmu komputer, teknik, sistem informasi, atau bidang terkait. Program terbaik untuk calon arsitek komputer adalah bidang berbasis komputer karena program ini menawarkan pengalaman langsung kepada siswa dalam desain database atau keamanan jaringan, yang keduanya penting untuk arsitek komputer. Kelas-kelas ini juga mengajarkan siswa berbagai teknologi yang digunakan di jaringan yang berbeda.

Beberapa siswa memilih untuk menyelesaikan MBA (master administrasi bisnis) dengan fokus pada sistem informasi. Keuntungan dari program ini adalah ia menawarkan kursus yang berhubungan dengan komputer dan bisnis. Bahkan setelah mendapatkan gelar, pelamar mungkin diharuskan memiliki setidaknya lima tahun pengalaman bekerja dengan sistem TI sebelum dipekerjakan sebagai arsitek komputer. Beberapa arsitek komputer kemudian menjadi pengelola komputer dan sistem informasi setelah mereka memperoleh pengalaman yang memadai.

Selama kita memiliki komputer dan semua bagian yang masuk ke dalam sistem komputer, akan terus ada permintaan untuk arsitek komputer. Arsitek komputer diharapkan melihat pertumbuhan pekerjaan 6% antara 2016 dan 2026 seperti yang dilaporkan oleh Biro Statistik Tenaga Kerja AS (BLS). Sementara komputasi awan telah mengurangi kebutuhan arsitek komputer, mereka akan terus diminati karena bisnis terus meningkatkan persyaratan teknologi mereka. BLS melaporkan bahwa arsitek komputer secara nasional memperoleh gaji mulai dari $ 58.160 hingga $ 162.390 pada Mei 2017 dengan gaji rata-rata $ 107.870.

Dengan lebih banyak komputer berbasis teknologi, arsitektur komputer akan terus menjadi karir yang menarik bagi kandidat yang tertarik untuk mengembangkan mesin ini.

 

 

 

 

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